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Glossary and Info

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Tempo/BPM

Beats per minute, time-based measurement usually used in making beats and other music.  I will often ask for this when you bring beats.

File formats (WAV, MP3)

Most common is MP3, which is a lower quality and therefore is a smaller file size, easy to transport via email, etc.


WAV is a higher quality format, but is a larger files size which typically can't be attached to emails.


Other file types can be used to import/export audio here, such as FLAC.  

Sample rate and bit depth

Sample rate is a measurement of the horizontal resolution of audio recording.  Bit depth is the vertical resolution.


K-Dubb typically records sessions at a sample rate of 96kHz and 64-bit .


Exported mixes and stems are typically in MP3 format.  WAV files are 44.1kHz and 16bit.  Higher resolution exports are available by request.

Digital Audio Workstation (DAW)

A DAW is a digital audio workstation that allows the recording, editing, and processing of audio signals.  The DAW used here is Reaper, and is very similar to Pro Tools, Cubase, Logic, etc.

Mixing and Mastering

Mixing is typically done after recording all performances for a project.  This is where the performances are blended into cohesion, elements of the project are reflected appropriately, and often effects are applied such as echoes/delays.


Mastering is the process of delicately adding volume to the mix as well as any final adjustments.  When creating an album, final mastering includes arranging the album songs, appropriate spacing/fading, and final volume balance.  Your final album can be delivered as a RedBook WAV or DDP.

Punch-In's, Doubles, Backing voclas, Ad-libs

Punch-in:  This is the technique used to correct a piece of recording without having to re-record the entire part.  This can only be done well if the tone is matched so the transition is seamless, like fixing a hole in the wall.


Doubles:  This is where the performance is repeated exactly, sometimes necessary to make the sound fuller with more depth.  For many artists, this effect is desired.  


Backing vocals:  In Rap, these are sections of doubles only to emphasize certain words/phrases.  In R&B, backing vocals can also be done in harmonies.  


Ad-libs:  These additions to vocals are usually not written, they are typically performed in the moment to add character and spontaneity to the performance.